Wednesday, 15 October 2014

Difference Between Skin Cancer and Warts

Difference in Definition:
Skin cancer also known as melanoma, is a type of cancer that primarily targets melanocytes. Because most of these cells still make melanin. Melanoma tumors appear either in brown or black colour.
Warts are raised bumps on the skin caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Difference in Causative Agent:
It is not an infectious disorder and could occur by excessive radiation exposure, carcinogenic chemicals of environment, artifical tanning and etc. the exact cause of it still unknown.
Warts is an infectious disease caused by human papilomavirus (HPV)
Difference in Epidemiology:
For Skin cancer;
·                 In 2007 in united state 56940 cases of melanoma reported.
·                 In 1996 2 per 100000 patient.
·                 In 2001 2.7 per 100000 patient reported.
     For Warts;
·                 Worldwide frequency is unknown but nearly 7-12% of the population is suffering from wars.
·                 Its frequency in school going children is 10-20% reported.
Patient suffering from warts showing his hand.
Difference in Signs & Symptoms:
A patient suffering from skin cancer or melanoma will suffer following sign and symptoms;
·         Unusual sores
·         Lumps
·         Blemishes
·         Marking changes in color.
      Some most common sign and symptoms of warts are as below;
·         Rough surface
·         Round or oval warts
·         Spot where warts may be lighter or darker than other skin
·         Some warts cause pain
Sun burn could increase the risk of skin cancer.
Difference in Pathophysiology:
Sun light is the most common risk factor that could up the risk of skin cancer. Sun light exposure causes formation of thymine dimers. DNA repair removes most UV induced damage. Cumulative DNA damage leads to mutation. The sunlight depresses the local immune system and decreasing immune surveillance of new tumor cells.
In case of warts the major target of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is epithelium and there is no systemic dissemination of the virus. Virus replicate in the epidermis layer and cause above mentioned sign and symptoms.
 Difference in Diagnostic Test:
It is necessary to have a clinical observation to diagnose warts but skin biopsy is done to detect skin cancer.
There are number of tests that are commonly used to detect skin cancer such as;
  1. -         Physical examine
  2. -         Skin biopsy
  3. -         Sentinel lymph node biopsy
  4. -         CT scan
  5. -         MRI.
      Detection of warts is dependent on the results of following tests;
  1. -         Amplification of viral genetic materials can also be done by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  2.     Immunohistochemical detection of HPV structural proteins.
Difference in Treatment:
For the treatment of Skin cancer physicians can prescribe following drugs;
  • -         Interferon
  • -         Interleukin-2
  • -         Other medicines such as ipilimumab
  •            Radiation therapy
  • -         Chemotherapy such as dacarbazine
      Following drug therapy is usually recommended to treat patients suffering from warts;
  •       Topical agents
  • -     Intralesional injections
  •       Laser therapy
  •       Cryosurgery
  • -     Photodynamic therapy
  •       Systemic agents
 References:
  1. Kanavy HE, Gerstenblith MR (December 2011). "Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma".Semin Cutan Med Surg 30 (4): 222–8.
  2. Burnett ME, Wang SQ (April 2011). "Current sunscreen controversies: a critical review".Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 27 (2): 58–67.
  3. Chiao, EY; Krown, SE (September 2003). "Update on non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies.". Current opinion in oncology 15 (5): 389–97.
  4. De Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H (Jun 2004). "Classification of papillomaviruses". Virology 324 (1): 17–27.
  5. Sharquie KE, Khorsheed AA, Al-Nuaimy AA (September 2007). "Topical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral warts". Saudi Med J 28 (9): 1418–21.
  6. Halasz CL (1994). "Treatment of common warts using the infrared coagulator". The Journal of dermatologic surgery and oncology 20 (4): 252–256.



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